Exploring the Rich Tapestry of Coffee Beans: A Journey into Varieties and Flavours

Coffee, the beloved elixir that kickstarts our mornings and fuels our afternoons, is a beverage that has captivated the hearts of millions around the globe. What makes each cup unique and flavourful, though? The answer lies in the diverse world of coffee beans. In this blog, we will delve into the different types of coffee beans and unravel the secrets behind their distinctive characteristics.

Arabica: The Connoisseur’s Choice

Arabica beans, known as the “wine of coffee,” are celebrated for their delicate flavours and aromatic profiles. Originating from regions with higher altitudes and cooler temperatures, such as Ethiopia, Colombia, and Brazil, Arabica beans boast a wide range of tasting notes. From fruity and floral to nutty and chocolatey, these beans are favoured by coffee connoisseurs for their nuanced flavours and lower caffeine content.

Given their subtle profile, Arabica beans pair well with certain brewing methods and flavour-enhancing elements. Below, we’ve listed some coffee types, brewing techniques and pairing foods that complement the characteristics of Arabica beans:

Light Roasts:

Arabica beans are often preferred for light roasts, as the lighter notes allow the unique flavours and aromas to shine. Light roasts bring out the floral, fruity, and acidic notes inherent in Arabica beans.

Filtered Coffee:

Arabica beans are well-suited for filtered brewing methods, such as pour-over or drip coffee makers. These methods allow the subtle flavours of Arabica to be extracted gradually, resulting in a well-balanced cup with bright acidity.


While Arabica beans are commonly associated with specialty espresso blends, they may not provide the same boldness as Robusta. However, the bright acidity and complex flavour profile of Arabica can create a flavoruful and aromatic espresso, especially in single-origin or carefully crafted blends.

Cold Brew:

Arabica beans can be an excellent choice for cold brew coffee. The long steeping process of cold brewing highlights the sweetness and low acidity of Arabica, producing a smooth and refreshing iced coffee.

Single-Origin Coffees:

Arabica beans from specific regions showcase unique flavour profiles. For example, Ethiopian Arabica beans often have fruity and floral notes, while Colombian Arabica beans may offer a balance of acidity and nuttiness. Exploring single-origin coffees allows you to appreciate the diversity within the Arabica family.

Manual Brewing Methods:

Arabica beans are well-suited for manual brewing methods like French press, Aeropress, or Chemex. These methods give you control over factors such as water temperature and brewing time, allowing you to highlight the specific flavours you enjoy in Arabica coffee.

Pair with Pastries:

The delicate flavours of Arabica coffee make it an ideal companion for pastries, desserts, and lighter breakfast foods. The pairing can enhance the overall tasting experience.

Robusta: Bold and Robust

Robusta beans, hailing from warmer and lower-altitude regions like Vietnam, Indonesia, and parts of Africa, are characterised by their bold and robust taste. With a higher caffeine content than Arabica, Robusta coffee often exhibits a stronger, more bitter flavour profile. This variety is often associated with earthy, woody, and sometimes even spicy notes. Due to its resilience against pests and diseases, Robusta is a popular choice for espresso blends and instant coffee.

Known for their bold, strong flavour and higher caffeine content, they are often favoured in certain types of coffee and brewing methods. We’ve explored some coffee types and styles that suit Robusta beans:

Espresso Blends:

Robusta beans are commonly used in espresso blends to provide a strong and rich flavour with a thick crema. The higher caffeine content contributes to the intense and robust character of the espresso.

Italian-style Espresso:

In Italian espresso traditions, Robusta is often preferred for its ability to produce a strong, bitter, and full-bodied shot of espresso. This is commonly found in traditional Italian espresso blends.

Dark Roasts:

Robusta beans can withstand darker roasting profiles, making them suitable for dark roasts. The deep, smoky, and sometimes slightly bitter notes that develop during dark roasting complement the inherent qualities of Robusta.

Instant Coffee:

Robusta is a common choice for instant coffee due to its robust flavour, longer shelf life, and resistance to degradation during processing. Instant coffee made with Robusta tends to have a stronger and more bitter taste.

Coffee Blends:

Robusta is often blended with other coffee varieties, including Arabica, to create a balanced cup. The combination of the smoothness of Arabica and the boldness of Robusta can produce a well-rounded flavour profile.

Moka Pot Coffee:

Robusta is suitable for brewing coffee in a Moka pot. The pressure-based brewing method of the Moka pot extracts the robust flavour of the beans, resulting in a strong and concentrated coffee similar to an espresso.

Coffee Blends for Milk-based Drinks:

Robusta’s strong flavour profile allows it to cut through the richness of milk, making it suitable for coffee blends used in drinks like cappuccinos and lattes.

It’s worth noting that while Robusta is often associated with a more intense and bitter flavour, the specific characteristics can vary depending on factors such as the region of cultivation and the processing methods. 

Liberica: The Unconventional Choice

Liberica beans, originating from West Africa, have a distinctive and unconventional flavour profile. Known for their irregular shape and large size, Liberica beans offer a unique tasting experience. With fruity, floral, and woody notes, this coffee variety is gaining popularity among adventurous coffee enthusiasts seeking something beyond the ordinary.

These beans can offer an interesting and distinct coffee experience and Liberica coffee is gaining popularity among those seeking something beyond the more common Arabica and Robusta varieties. Have a look at some of the coffee types and styles that may suit Liberica beans:

Single-Origin Coffees:

Liberica beans from specific regions can showcase unique flavour profiles. Exploring single-origin Liberica coffees allows you to appreciate the distinct characteristics imparted by the terroir, such as the soil, climate, and altitude.

Medium to Dark Roasts:

Liberica beans can handle medium to dark roasting profiles, bringing out rich and complex flavours. The roasting process helps balance the inherent fruity and floral notes of Liberica, offering a more robust and full-bodied cup.

Cold Brew:

The unique flavour profile of Liberica, with its fruity and floral notes, can be well-suited for cold brew coffee. Cold brewing allows for a smooth and refreshing cup, highlighting the sweetness and minimising any potential bitterness.

Blends for Complexity:

Liberica beans can be blended with other coffee varieties, such as Arabica or even other Liberica sub-varieties like Excelsa, to create a complex and layered flavour profile. Experimenting with blends allows for a customised and unique coffee experience.

Flavoured Coffees:

Liberica’s distinctive taste makes it an interesting choice for flavoured coffees. The fruity and floral notes can complement or enhance certain added flavours, creating a unique and exotic cup.

Alternative Brewing Methods:

Liberica beans can be used in alternative brewing methods like pour-over, Aeropress, or French press. These methods allow for a more hands-on approach to brewing, bringing out the nuanced flavours of Liberica.

Dessert Pairings:

The fruity and floral notes of Liberica can make it a good match for desserts. Consider pairing Liberica coffee with fruity pastries, cakes, or desserts with floral undertones to enhance the overall tasting experience.

Keep in mind that Liberica coffee is still relatively less widespread compared to Arabica and Robusta, so finding it may require a bit more effort. If you enjoy exploring new and unique flavours in your coffee, Liberica can offer an exciting addition to your coffee journey.

Excelsa (or Liberica Excelsa): The Enigmatic Bean

Excelsa, often considered a sub-variety of Liberica, is known for its versatility in flavour. Originating from regions like Southeast Asia and East Africa, Excelsa beans exhibit a complex taste profile, ranging from fruity and spicy to floral and wine-like. This enigmatic bean is often used in specialty blends to add depth and complexity to the flavour profile.

Excelsa can be a delightful choice for various coffee experiences. Below are some coffee types and styles that may suit Excelsa beans:

Blends for Complexity:

Excelsa beans can be blended with other coffee varieties, such as Arabica or even other Liberica sub-varieties, to create a well-rounded and complex flavour profile. The fruity and spicy notes of Excelsa can add depth to blends, offering a unique and layered tasting experience.

Single-Origin Coffees:

Exploring single-origin Excelsa coffees allows you to appreciate the unique flavours associated with the specific region where the beans are grown. Excelsa beans from different areas may exhibit varying characteristics that mean they can suit softer palates and those looking for something more heady.

Medium Roasts:

Excelsa beans are often well-suited for medium roasts, allowing the coffee to retain its fruity and floral notes while developing a balanced and subtle flavour profile. The medium roast helps showcase the inherent complexity of Excelsa without overwhelming its delicate qualities.

Manual Brewing Methods:

Excelsa can shine when brewed using manual methods such as pour-over, Chemex, or French press. These methods allow for precision in brewing, bringing out the balanced flavours of the beans and highlighting the intricacies of Excelsa coffee.

Cold Brew:

Excelsa beans can be an interesting choice for cold brew coffee. Cold brewing can accentuate the fruity and wine-like characteristics, resulting in a refreshing and complex iced coffee.

Flavoured Coffees:

Excelsa’s unique flavour profile makes it suitable for flavoured coffees. Consider pairing Excelsa with complementary flavours, such as chocolate, nuts, or spices, to enhance the overall taste experience.

Creative Espresso Blends:

Excelsa can be incorporated into espresso blends to add a layer of complexity. The spicy and fruity notes of Excelsa can contribute to a distinctive espresso shot or form the base for creative espresso-based drinks.

Pairing with Spicy Foods:

The natural spiciness of Excelsa makes it a good pairing with spicy foods. Consider enjoying a cup of Excelsa coffee alongside dishes with bold and spicy flavours to create a harmonious balance.

Excelsa is a unique and less common coffee variety, so exploring different brewing methods and experimenting with various flavour pairings can help you fully appreciate its distinctive qualities. 

Ethiopian Heirloom: The Birthplace of Coffee

Ethiopian Heirloom beans represent a mix of indigenous coffee varieties grown in Ethiopia. Known for their vibrant acidity and diverse flavour notes, Ethiopian coffees often feature fruity, floral, and wine-like characteristics. The unique combination of altitude, climate, and soil in Ethiopia contributes to the distinctiveness of these heirloom beans.

Here are some coffee types and styles that may suit Ethiopian Heirloom beans:

Single-Origin Coffees:

Ethiopian Heirloom coffees are often enjoyed as single-origin offerings, allowing coffee enthusiasts to appreciate the unique flavours associated with the specific regions and microclimates of Ethiopia. Look for coffees from regions such as Sidamo, Yirgacheffe, or Harrar to explore different profiles.

Light to Medium Roasts:

Ethiopian Heirloom beans are typically well-suited for light to medium roasts. These roasting profiles help preserve the bright acidity and intricate flavour notes, such as the fruity and floral characteristics inherent in the beans.

Pour-Over and Chemex Brewing:

Manual brewing methods like pour-over and Chemex can be excellent choices for Ethiopian Heirloom beans. These methods allow for control over extraction, bringing out the full flavours and acidity in a well-balanced manner.


The Aeropress brewing method can also highlight the unique qualities of Ethiopian Heirloom coffee. It offers a versatile and customisable approach to brewing, allowing you to experiment with different parameters to bring out specific flavour notes.

Espresso and Espresso-Based Drinks:

Ethiopian Heirloom coffees can be used to create exceptional espressos, especially with their bright acidity and fruity notes. They also work well in espresso-based drinks like lattes and cappuccinos, providing a unique and flavourful twist to traditional coffee beverages.

Cold Brew:

Ethiopian Heirloom beans can be a great choice for cold brew coffee. The extended steeping time of cold brewing enhances the sweetness and acidity, resulting in a smooth and refreshing iced coffee.

Pairing with Fruity Desserts:

Given the fruity and floral characteristics of Ethiopian Heirloom coffees, they pair well with fruity desserts. Consider enjoying a cup alongside desserts that feature berries, citrus, or tropical fruits.

Exploring Natural Processed Coffees:

Natural processed Ethiopian Heirloom coffees, where the beans are dried with the fruit intact, often exhibit pronounced fruity and wine-like flavours. Exploring coffees processed in this way can provide a unique and exotic tasting experience.

Ethiopian Heirloom beans offer a rich tapestry of flavours, and experimenting with different brewing methods and roast levels can help you fully appreciate the complexity and diversity of this unique coffee variety.

As you embark on this journey through the world of coffee beans, it will become clear that the diversity in flavours and characteristics is a testament to the intricate relationship between the bean, its environment, and the art of cultivation. Whether you savour the delicate elegance of Arabica, the boldness of Robusta, or the exotic allure of Liberica and Excelsa, each cup tells a story of geography, climate, and tradition. So, the next time you take a sip of your favourite brew, remember that the world of coffee is as vast and varied as the cultures that cultivate it.